(I) Many tribal people who are today ‘uncontacted’ are in fact the survivors’ descendants of past atrocities. (II) These acts – massacres, disease epidemics, terrifying violence – are seared into their collective memory, and contact with the outside world is now to be avoided at all costs. (III) Many of the isolated Indians of western Amazonia, for example, are the descendants of the few survivors of the rubber boom which swept through the region at the end of the 19th century. (IV) This does not mean, however, that they live just as they did 60,000 years ago. (V) During this period, 90% of the Indian population was wiped out in a horrific wave of enslavement and appalling brutality.